In the school practice, work on formation of skills to generalize in the primary study material is still poorly implemented. Not yet well-developed methodology for such classes, there is little corresponding methodical literature. When learning spelling generalization of knowledge is associated mainly with the work on the final stages – at the stage of consolidation and repetition of already learned material. However, in modern psychology and didactics it is well defined and the other, quite promising direction, orienting on a course of training, when the total is not absorbed in the final, but at the initial stage. With regard to the spelling as such may serve in common group orfogramm and regulations, how to use them.
Spelling as a system based on similarities and differences of language phenomena, contains the objective prerequisites for consolidation and differentiation of material primarily on the stage of the primary study.
The process of forming generalizations at this stage suggests some changes in the work of teachers and the organization of cognitive activity of students. What are the means and methods of teaching are activated?
- Structuring of educational material on the basis of identification and differentiating features of rules of word-building typologies and models of basic spelling threads;
- use of props (theoretical and visual) at all stages of education; strengthening of heuristic orientation of training, the inclusion of various types of problem tasks, tasks and situations and training methods for their solutions;
- the use of algorithmic orders (especially the model) and adequate samples of their motivation spellings (verbal and graphic);
the use of exercises that focus on the reasoning in the process of writing and graphic fixation of mental action on the synthesis and early differentiation spelling phenomena, the choice orfogramm under their alternative submission, the decision of cognitive tasks, receive feedback and self-realization.
In preparation for the study of generalized orthographic material must be realized the logic of a school textbook, to determine the most efficient sequence of interrelated subjects in the study and implementation of a system of exercises, appropriate to the new approach. The new approach involves the development of a new typology of generic lessons explore related themes and structure of the basic model of the lesson, gain the generalizing function of structural elements of the lesson. However – especially emphasize – Formation of theoretical generalizations in teaching spelling – it is only one, albeit a very important, a way of learning and methods of their application. Under the new approach provides unity of deductive and inductive way of knowledge, created the continuity of communication in the development of cognitive activity of students, and in addition, a motivational base for the Learning in the subsequent stages. The technique developed generalized study material can be used not only for teaching spelling, but also in the study of other sections of the course, as well as the study of other subjects. The positive results of experimental verification of the effectiveness of the developed method allows to recommend it for teachers, especially as its application does not require changes in school curricula and textbooks.
Below is a variant form of the lesson generalized knowledge in teaching spelling material on one of the most difficult for the students.